JLU mooc: What is effective argumentation?

Logical appeal

Using logical thinking in writing, avoid logical fallacies.

When converting logical syllogisms(三段论) in to writing arguments, remember:

  • Lay out each premise clearly.
  • Provide evidence for each premise.
  • Draw a clear connection to the conclusion.

Common logical fallacies:

  • Guilt by association: Association based on the unrelated traits.
  • Post Hoc: After this, therefore because of this.
  • Begging the question/circular argument: Take the unproved conclusion for granted/Use the conclusion as the premise.
  • Non sequitur: A conclusion doesn’t follow the premise.
  • Oversimplification: Multiple causes are reduced to just one.
  • Hasty Generalization: erroneous inductive argument.

Emotional appeal

  • Appeal to idealism, beauty, humor, nostalgia, or pity (or other emotions) in a balanced way.
  • Use descriptive language & imagery to create a bond with the reader.

Ethical appeal

  • To establish the writer as fair, open-minded, honest and knowledgeable about the subject matter.
  • Write with a genuine concern with the topic.
  • Fairly treat the objections or alternatives.